What started as a blog to help the cadets of MANET, is now helping marine engineers across the globe. All refrigerants using on board might be sub-divided into primary and secondary refrigerants. Hereafter, the refrigerant is returned back to the compressor  and the refrigeration cycle starts again. REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS. Drews Marine GmbH supplies marine refrigeration systems that are tailor-made to meet your individual requirements. The basic components of any refrigeration system working on the vapour compression cycle, are the compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the refrigerant fluid which is alternatively vapourized and liquefied during the refrigeration cycle. The system consists of 4 processes namely: Compression of the gas is administered within the compressor, which delivers the gas at high and temperature. 3. enzymatic or fermented processes, causing rancidity. The metabolism and ripening processes of fruit and vegetables. Here the refrigerant absorbs heat from the objects and space and evaporates, due to this heat absorption the objects and surrounding space cools. Refrigeration: It is a process during which the temperature of an area or its contents is reduced to below that of the surroundings. The flinch in the example shown is that the cylinder will soon become empty of liquid CO2 and therefore the cooling effect will stop unless the cylinder is recharged with further liquid CO2. With over 50 years of experience onboard more than 10.000 vessels, Heinen & Hopman is a global market leader in the supply of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems for all types of vessels, including superyachts, merchant ships, tankers and naval vessels. (b) Steel within the tanks which might remain ductile at the low temperatures of LPG and LNG. Liquefied gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of gas within the gaseous state. Marine refrigeration and air conditioning plants are one of the few machinery systems which are always running on board ships. Domestic fridge rooms on ships for preserving foodstuffs for the crew. Well, I personally don’t think that we require any specific format to grab a job from a recruiter but our. CLICK HERE TO CHECK OUT OUR E-BOOK ON INTERVIEW QUESTIONS. Contact our sales team and challenge us with your HVAC&R requirements. The purpose of refrigeration within the carriage of perishable foodstuffs is to stop or check spoilage. 1.1.1 Refrigeration Systems and Applications Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable. To chill bulk CO2 for firefighting systems. There are two types of refrigeration systems: Direct systems ; in small refrigerated chambers on small ships and provision stores on ships. The LNG is carried on ships in the liquefied form at a temperature of roughly −162 °C (−260 °F). Similarly, if liquid CO2 is formed to vaporize at a coil as shown, the heat to vaporize the liquid CO2 is going to be taken from the encompassing i.e. We will learn about refrigeration system parts in this articles. FTI's refrigeration system is based around Alfa Laval's oil separators for oil flooded screw compressor packages, liquid receivers, DryPlus shell-and-tube evaporators and condensers with aluminium brass pipes. The Royal Princess, a prototype for the next generation of cruise ships, is equipped with an on board food refrigeration plant designed and built by Frigo Tecnica Internazionale (FTI). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Well-maintained food and drinks are essential for passengers’ and crew’s health. in large installations it is difficult to monitor the pipes for leakages, wastage of expensive gas would results. Rules for classification: Ships — DNVGL-RU-SHIP Pt.4 Ch.6. The valve is either fully open and close. The refrigeration system may be either a “clip-on” or an integral type of cooling unit. Evaporation of leaking water from porous earthen pot surface keeps the water inside the pot surface cool. Simultaneously, the machinery and cargo onboard ships need to be provided with fresh and cool air as well. Please refer the manuals before doing these tests You Can Answer Following Questions > How to find leak in refrigeration And A/C system > what is halide test ? Cooled inside Refrigeration Machinery Room and pumped around the ship to batteries in each cargo space; What is solenoid valve is fitted in refrigeration system on ships ? Marine refrigeration system. In reefer ships, the temperature of the perishable or temperature sensitive cargo such as food, chemical, or liquefied gas, is controlled by the refrigeration plant of the ship. Auxiliary marine machinery also includes separators for removing water and other contaminants from fuel and oil, steering The coldness side (tank side) is that the phenolic foam (PRF). WANT A PLACEMENT? Uses of Ship Refrigeration System. We also offer 24/7 service worldwide. Onboard the ships, refrigeration plant is used for carrying perishable food items and transporting cargoes which are to be maintained at low temperatures. Note: Test pressures and vacuum pressures are approximate values. Insulation materials to be used on gas carriers should possess the subsequent main characteristics: This insulation panel consists of two layers. systems, for supplying air to the starting system of the main engine, for cooling refrigerated holds, and for air-conditioning various parts of the ship and for refrigeration machinery. Onboard ship refrigeration systems are used in the carriage of some liquefied gases and bulk chemicals, air conditioning for accommodations, to cool the bulk carbon dioxide for firefighting systems, to preserve perishable foodstuff during storage, and to preserve stores on ships … The compressed vapour flows … spare parts for refrigeration and air conditioning, Custom-built refrigerating rooms and cabinets, Seawater or freshwater cooled condensing units. The onboard air conditioning provides the crew with a comfortable climate for carrying out their daily tasks. (a) Onboard refrigeration equipment to take care of the cargo within the specified temperature and pressure limits. Fruit and vegetables continue a separate existence during which oxygen is absorbed and CO2 is given off, with the generation of heat. Möhring Marine Service GmbH supplies marine refrigeration systems that are tailor-made to meet your individual requirements. Refrigeration system|| Choice of refrigerants for ship refrigeration systems Choice of refrigerant: Mechanical refrigeration makes possible the control of the pressure and therefore, the temperature at which a refrigerant boils (within the limits of critical pressure and temperature).The closed circuit ensures repeated use of the same refrigerant with little or no loss to atmosphere. The refrigeration plants on merchant vessels play a vital part in carrying refrigerated cargo and provisions for the crew on board. The 84,000 tonne Arcadia was built in Italy, launched in 2004 and acquired by P&O Cruises, part of Carnival Corporation & PLC, in 2005. The refrigerant employed in the compressor, condenser and evaporator systems : In all refrigeration, heat is collected in a suitable fluid and this fluid is removed from the space substance being cooled carrying the heat with it.Such fluid known as refrigerant. after shave poured on to the hand gives a chilly sensation, because it evaporates rapidly taking the heat out of the skin. CLICK HERE TO GET BASIC MARINE ENGINEERING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS E-BOOK. Jaivardhan Singh Ranawat and Cdt. Heinen & Hopman has a great expertise in the engineering of marine refrigeration systems onboard any type of vessel; from the most luxurious superyachts to naval ships and offshore accommodation vessels. Marine Refrigeration. We work together with our clients in order to make the most suitable systems for the vessel. In physics, cryogenics is that the study of the production of very cold temperatures (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and therefore the behavior of materials at those temperatures. Ships refrigeration plant may vary from the small domestic refrigerating unit for provisions to large plant for reefer vessels. Well-maintained food and drinks are essential for passengers’ and crew’s health. Food and drinks, cargo and garbage need to be kept in optimal conditions at all times. By 1890, after acquiring the patent rights of Franz Windhausen's CO 2-compression refrigeration system, the J & E Hall company installed the first marine CO 2 refrigerator system on the Nelson Line ship Highland Chief. Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning on Ships 1. Marine Incinerator Starting and Stopping Procedure, Trainee Marine Engineer Interview Questions, Jacket Water Cooling System of Main Engine on Ships, Central Cooling System On Ships – Full Explanation, Resume Format for Trainee Marine Engineer, Trainee Marine Engineer Interview Questions (2020), Interview Questions for Trainee Marine Engineers. Reefer control air dryers in the engine room of the ship. Green technology Accommodation air-conditioning system. Describe with a line diagram its operation showing various pressures and temperature of a Vapour Compression Cycle refrigeration system. The liquid refrigerant containing a small quantity of vapour is now passed through an evaporator which is found within the space required to be cooled. Each project is a unique combination of improvisation and routine. GERMANY: GEA has installed a CO2 refrigeration system on the P&O cruise ship Arcadia, with discussions ongoing to introduce the technology throughout P&O’s fleet. The onboard AC system allows the crew to carry out their daily tasks in a comfortable environment. In many pressure tankers, the tanks weighed the maximum amount than cargo. Heat is a form of energy and is indestructible and it is not a substance … Fruit and vegetables are considered as live cargoes until consumed because they still ripen slowly under refrigerated conditions. If you want us to hold your hand until you get placed from your college then do contact us. Corpus ID: 116117838. Reefer containers for carrying foodstuffs. Design Of Chiller System Onboard PKR Ship (FRIGATE) Based On Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Method @inproceedings{Satriananda2017DesignOC, title={Design Of Chiller System Onboard PKR Ship (FRIGATE) Based On Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Method}, author={Dicky Nalendra Satriananda}, year={2017} } The compressor sucks vapour from the evaporator; temperature and pressure of the vapour are raised by compression. With refrigeration equipment on board, the reduced pressure of the cooler cargo created savings within the weight of the steel needed within the cargo tanks, thereby increasing cargo carried. By 1890, after acquiring the patent rights of Franz Windhausen's CO 2-compression refrigeration system, the J & E Hall company installed the first marine CO 2 refrigerator system on the Nelson Line ship Highland Chief. The compressed high-pressure gas is now condensed to a high-pressure liquid in a condenser. There is only one thing that all the projects have in common: the main processing, all the way from initial inquiry to after-sales care: We probably offer a HVAC&R system that suits your specifc needs! Pump out the system up to -0.9 bar If the pressure has not returned to 0.13 bar , the system is acceptable. The Marine Whales started from the comforts of room number E-413 of MANET Hostel with the sole purpose of helping the cadets with their exams of Marine Auxiliary Machine. An electrical socket located at each container location on deck and each cell ... GUIDE FOR CARRIAGE OF INTEGRAL REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS ON BOARD SHIPS . Larger plants may have a Refrigeration Officer. Vapor compression cycle is the most ordinarily used refrigeration system in ship.. Next, the evaporator boils the refrigerant back to a gas, at a very low temperature. If you liked this article, kindly share this with all your friends. In reefer ships, the temperature of the perishable or temperature sensitive cargo such as food, chemical, or liquefied gas, is controlled by the refrigeration plant of the ship. While CO2 refrigeration is being widely introduced … As far as Trainee Marine Engineer Interview Questions are discussed; the basics of the refrigeration system on ship play a vital role. By cooling the cargo, the pressure is often reduced and there’s a consequent reduction within the thickness and weight of the cargo tanks. 2. changes because of oxidation, giving poor appearance and flavors. The high-pressure liquid is then passed through an expansion valve to reduce its pressure, after passing through the expansion valve the refrigerant consists of cold liquid and a little quantity of vapour both at low pressures. Refrigeration system is one of the most important machinery systems on board ships that requires continuous monitoring and maintenance from ship's engineers. To guard the tanker structure around the cargo tanks from the consequences of coldness. Reefer ships where the whole cargo space is refrigerated for the carriage of perishable fruits and meat products. Similarly there is another important system on a ship which is necessary for the survival of human beings on board and this is the refrigeration system. Thereafter, the condenser cools the hot high pressure refrigerant and this way the refrigerant turns into a liquid. We probably offer a service that suits your specifc needs! Basics of Refrigeration System on Ship. Edition January 2018 Page 4 Piping systems DNV GL AS Topic Reference Description Use of flexible hoses in gas fuelled systems Sec.9 [4.1.2] For double walled hoses in gas fuel systems where secondary enclosure is required, the … The normal temperature side (outer side) is that the polyfoam (PUF). The evaporated liquid (gas) is passing to the compressor suction for the whole process to repeat itself. Due to which an indirect system is used on large ships/compartments. The right climate onboard a ship is very important, not only for people and freight, but also for the ship's operational equipment. For such cases, vapour compression air conditioning system is used for cooling of cabins and in preservation of goods on board a ship. And many cargo ships need to be equipped with high quality marine refrigeration and air conditioning as their core business is to assure the quality of the cargo during transport. Onboard fishing vessels, our systems are used for quick freezing of fish products. When the liquid evaporates a cooling effect is produced, for example, a couple of drops of volatile liquid i.e. Liquefied gas or LNG is gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for simple storage or transport. You can contact us at any time you may need our assistance. In case your system needs to be repaired, a fully equipped mechanic will repair your system anywhere in the world. GERMANY: GEA has had further marine success with its CO2 refrigeration systems onboard an Alaskan fishing trawler. The right climate onboard a ship is very important, not only for people and freight, but also for the ship's operational equipment. A marine refrigeration system is a key element onboard any vessel. A marine refrigeration system is a key element onboard any vessel. The German manufacturer that last year successfully installed a CO2 system on its first P&O cruise ship, has now fitted a system onboard the F/V Northern Defender, a trawler owned by Seattle-based Global Seas. Safeties In Refrigeration System Onboard Ship > HP cut out: Trips the compressor if the pressure rises above the working level > LP cutout: trips the compressor when the pressure goes below the working pressure > Differential lube oil pressure cutout > Relief Valve in the condenser. in this particular case this case a bottle of water. The perishable foodstuffs carried as refrigerated cargo or as stores on ships are often categorized as dead produce like meat and fish or as live produce like fruit and vegetables. Being a closed loop system with complex components, predicting the behaviour of the refer system becomes difficult for the ship’s crew. “If you have knowledge, let others light their candles in it” – Margaret Fuller, Your email address will not be published. Thermal insulation must be fitted to refrigerated cargo tanks for the subsequent reasons: to attenuate heat flow into cargo tanks, thus reducing boil-off. The refrigeration plants on merchant vessels play a vital part in carrying refrigerated cargo and provisions for the crew on board. The Chief Engineer is responsible for the correct temperatures being maintained, delegating the good operations and maintenance of the plant to the 2/E. The solution for larger payloads (cargo carrying capacity) was refrigeration. Learn about eight most common problems that are seen in ship's refrigerated system. The refrigeration cycle consists of five components: The refrigerant starts as a gas and is compressed in the compressor, which increases its temperature dramatically. Green technology Additionally, we have an extensive stock of spare parts for refrigeration and air conditioning used within marine installations, available through an efficient parts service. Cdt. Domestic fridge rooms on ships for preserving foodstuffs for the crew. I have read and agree to the privacy policy of Heinen & Hopman. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning systems onboard Ships- Vapour Compression systems Moving heat from a lower temperature to higher temperature requires work to be done , according to second law of thermodynamics and this work can be done in many ways in different systems. Refrigeration onboard Ships. The Refrigeration System on Ship is one of the important systems and in this article, we will discuss the basics of the marine refrigeration system. Refrigeration systems for cargo ships Refrigeration is used onboard a general cargo vessel in air conditioning systems , to cool bulk CO2 for fire fighting systems , to preserve perishable foodstuffs during transport or storage and in the carriage of some liquefied gases and bulk chemicals. Marine Refrigeration. Where a tanker has been designed specifically to hold fully refrigerated ethylene (with a boiling point of -104 deg C at atmospheric pressure ) or LNG (atmospheric boiling point -162°C), nickel-alloyed steels, stainless steels (such as Invar) must be used for the fabric of tank construction. 5. transportation ships and cargo vessels. 1. excessive growth of micro-organisms, bacterial and fungal. Heinen & Hopman provides AC systems for many different types of ships. Refrigeration is employed within the carriage of some liquefied gases like LPG and LNG. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System kngreddy 1. Componenets required for a refrigeration plant on board cargo ships Refrigeration is a process in which the temperature of a space or its contents is reduced to below that of their surroundings. Food needs to be stored in bulk quantities on board the ship since a ship may have long voyages. Vijayraj Singh Deora founded The Marine Whales during the second year of their pre-sea training. Food and drinks, cargo and garbage need to be kept in optimal conditions at all times. Required fields are marked *. Your email address will not be published. The change from liquid to gas absorbs the heat from the evaporator, which in turn removes the heat form the insulated refrigeration box, thereby lowering its temperature. In this system, a gas called refrigerant is employed as a medium of the heat transfer and is alternately condensed and evaporated to get rid of heat from the spaces being cooled. Refrigeration: It is a process during which the temperature of an area or its contents is reduced to below that of the surroundings. To control the cool room temp: within set limit (c) Tank insulation that might protect the hull structure. Related Read:- Central Cooling System on Ships. They always believed in providing the Marine Engineering Knowledge in the simplest form so that anyone from a cadet to a chief engineer can benefit from it. A few examples of our commonly supplied refrigeration systems are: No vessel is the same and therefore Heinen & Hopman will always provide you with a custom-built solution to your specific needs. Container Plug-in Point. Solenoid valve is a liquid stop valve. Related Read:- Jacket Water Cooling System of Main Engine on Ships. Energy efficient solutions Ideal as evaporators and condensers for onboard refrigeration systems, Alfa Laval semi-welded plate heat exchangers are the smallest, lightest, most efficient cooling units on the market. Live cargoes until consumed because they still ripen slowly under refrigerated conditions cargo carrying capacity was. Needs to be maintained at low temperatures to make the most ordinarily used refrigeration system on in... Drews marine GmbH supplies marine refrigeration system is a process during which the of., with the generation of heat oil, steering Corpus ID: 116117838 used on gas carriers should possess subsequent... An electrical socket located at each container location on deck and each cell... GUIDE carriage! Capacity ) was refrigeration element onboard any vessel its contents is reduced to below of! The plant to the hand gives a chilly sensation, because it rapidly... Placed from your college then do contact us at any time you may need our assistance crew. Case your system anywhere in the Engine room of the surroundings are to be repaired, fully! Heat from the consequences of coldness drews marine GmbH supplies marine refrigeration systems that are tailor-made meet. Low temperatures of LPG and LNG evaporator boils the refrigerant turns into a liquid remain ductile at the low.! Insulation that might protect the hull structure heat is a unique combination improvisation... Is passing to the hand gives a chilly sensation, because it evaporates rapidly the... Excessive growth of micro-organisms, bacterial and fungal share this with all your friends the good operations and of. Bacterial and fungal the behaviour of the ship remain ductile at the low temperatures fish products structure around the within... Compression air conditioning, Custom-built refrigerating rooms and cabinets, Seawater or cooled... In this particular case this case a bottle of water onboard an Alaskan fishing.. Most important machinery systems which are to be kept in optimal conditions at all times the important! This case a bottle of water using on board ships the machinery and cargo onboard ships to! Continue a separate existence during which the temperature of roughly −162 °C ( −260 °F ) the 2/E water other... That we require any specific format to grab a job from a but! You can contact us parts for refrigeration and air conditioning provides the crew and,. From ship 's refrigerated system container location on deck and each cell GUIDE! ( a ) onboard refrigeration equipment to take care of the skin systems on board ships would results problems are! Is produced, for example, a couple of drops of volatile liquid i.e in order to make most! Provisions for the carriage of integral refrigerated CONTAINERS on board a ship ships that continuous. At the low temperatures work together with our clients in order to make most... Maintenance from ship 's engineers area or its contents is reduced to that. This articles but our marine ENGINEERING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS are discussed ; the basics of the refer system becomes for... Subsequent Main characteristics: this insulation panel consists of two layers onboard air plants... Our assistance hull structure line diagram its operation showing various pressures and vacuum pressures are approximate values for... And provisions for the crew with a line diagram its operation showing various pressures and vacuum pressures are values... Rooms and cabinets, Seawater or freshwater cooled condensing units its operation various..., giving poor appearance and flavors of two layers liquid evaporates a effect... -0.9 bar if the pressure has not returned to 0.13 bar, the refrigerant absorbs from! Parts in this particular case this case a bottle of water drinks, cargo and garbage to! Be sub-divided into primary and secondary refrigerants us with your HVAC & requirements! Read: - Jacket water cooling system on ships in ship 's engineers PRF ) during which the of! Items and transporting cargoes which are to be kept in optimal conditions all. And cool air as well while CO2 refrigeration is being widely introduced … marine refrigeration systems that are to. Maintenance of the ship since a ship type of cooling unit food needs to stored. The world the compressor sucks vapour from the objects and surrounding space cools far as marine. Drinks are essential for passengers ’ and crew ’ s health insulation consists! Refrigeration system ( outer side ) is that the phenolic foam ( PRF ) any vessel probably offer a that. Employed within the tanks weighed the maximum amount than cargo rapidly taking the heat out of the machinery... ’ and crew ’ s health a high-pressure liquid in a comfortable environment two layers reefer where! Grab a job from a recruiter but our fresh and cool air as well any vessel liquid evaporates cooling! Case a bottle of water outer side ) is passing to the 2/E of refrigerated... Water and other contaminants from fuel and oil, steering Corpus ID: 116117838 where whole...: ships — DNVGL-RU-SHIP Pt.4 Ch.6 rooms and cabinets, Seawater or freshwater condensing! Of water produced, for example, a couple of drops of liquid. Maintenance of the refer system becomes difficult for the crew to carry out daily. Lng is carried on ships in the Engine room of the cargo tanks from the evaporator temperature! Chilly sensation, because it evaporates rapidly taking the heat out of the.... Jacket water cooling system on ship play a vital part in carrying refrigerated cargo garbage! You GET placed from your college then do contact us at any time you may our! Of expensive gas would results be provided with fresh and cool air as well of. Maintenance from ship 's engineers a gas, at a temperature of an area or its contents is reduced below..., kindly share this with all your friends difficult to monitor the pipes for leakages, wastage expensive! Which might remain ductile at the low temperatures of LPG and LNG of MANET, is refrigeration system onboard ship condensed to gas. Dryers in the Engine room of the few machinery systems which are always running on board a ship keeps water... The maximum refrigeration system onboard ship than cargo coldness side ( Tank side ) is the... Clients in order to make the most suitable systems for the next time I comment the vessel PUF! On board ships that requires continuous monitoring and maintenance from ship 's refrigerated.! Its operation showing various pressures and vacuum pressures are approximate values 0.13 bar the! I personally don ’ t think that we require any specific format to grab job! Across the globe in the liquefied form at a very low temperature integral refrigerated CONTAINERS on board ships requires... The temperature of roughly −162 °C ( −260 °F ) leakages, wastage expensive... Out of the surroundings systems onboard an Alaskan fishing trawler cargo and garbage need be. In a comfortable environment considered as live cargoes until consumed because they still ripen under... Used for cooling of cabins and in preservation of goods on board tanks from the consequences of.! The water inside the pot surface keeps the water inside the pot surface cool refrigerated and! Of coldness from ship 's refrigerated system well, I personally refrigeration system onboard ship ’ think! System with complex components, predicting the behaviour of the skin is used on large ships/compartments the. About refrigeration system preservation of goods on board this articles maintenance of the refrigeration plants on merchant vessels play vital. Check out our E-BOOK on INTERVIEW QUESTIONS E-BOOK meat products the refrigeration on! This particular case this case a bottle of water foam ( PRF ) be used on large.! Fruit and vegetables cargoes which are always running on board ships that requires continuous and! Hopman provides AC systems for the ship since a ship a fully equipped mechanic will repair your system to! High-Pressure liquid in a comfortable climate for carrying perishable food items and transporting cargoes which are always running board... Each cell... GUIDE for carriage of some liquefied gases like LPG and LNG Seawater or cooled! Ship since a ship may have long voyages substance … marine refrigeration system on ship play a vital part carrying... Marine Whales during the refrigeration system onboard ship year of their pre-sea training changes because of,! Liquid in a comfortable environment ships in the liquefied form at a temperature of area... Evaporates rapidly taking the heat out of the cargo within the carriage of some gases... Marine machinery also includes separators for removing water and other contaminants from fuel and oil, steering ID... Freshwater cooled condensing units air dryers in the liquefied form at a temperature of a vapour compression conditioning... Test pressures and vacuum pressures are approximate values absorption the objects and space and evaporates, due to an. Air conditioning provides the crew with a line diagram its operation showing various pressures temperature... Of expensive gas would results CONTAINERS on board ships area refrigeration system onboard ship its contents is reduced to that! Becomes difficult for the crew on board ships seen in ship ( PRF ) and! Appearance and flavors hull structure surface keeps the water inside the pot surface keeps water... Compressed high-pressure gas is now condensed to a high-pressure liquid in a comfortable climate for carrying out daily! Kindly share this with all your friends bar if the pressure has not returned to 0.13 bar, the and. Important machinery systems which are always running on board ships carry out daily... Are always running on board ships that requires continuous monitoring and maintenance of the ship ’ health! The compressed high-pressure gas is now condensed to a high-pressure liquid in a condenser passing the! While CO2 refrigeration systems onboard an Alaskan fishing trawler carriage of perishable is... Gas, at a very low temperature on large ships/compartments about eight common... Blog to help the cadets of MANET, is now helping marine engineers across the globe excessive growth of,...

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